Bees are Helping Thailand’s Elephants and Farmers to Peacefully Coexist – Bee Fences in Asia Part 2

A new study brings hope for reducing conflicts between elephants and farmers in Thailand

Guest post by Antoinette van de Water

Beehive fences in Thailand. Photo: BTEH

Kaeng Hang Maeo district in Eastern Thailand is in an area of high human-elephant conflict. A herd of about 70–80 elephants lives between the protected areas and agricultural land, causing damage to crops almost on a nightly basis. Over four years ago, Bring The Elephant Home (BTEH) and the Phuluang Wildlife Research Station started a joint project to evaluate the effectiveness of beehive fences in deterring Asian elephants, under supervision of Dr. Lucy King. We set up a pilot beehive fence around a subsistence farm surrounded by elephant habitat and installed camera-traps to record the elephants’ reactions to the bees, which belong the species Apis mellifera, or European honeybee.

Elephants at the fences. Photo: BTEH

The first camera trap video we captured showed a small herd of elephants breaking through the newly installed fence. Since then, the team made several adjustments to improve the effectiveness: increasing the bee population, reducing the distance between the hives, and a low-cost trigger mechanism, which opens the hives to activate dormant bees when elephants try to break through the fence.

After spending many nights observing videos, we decided to set up a team of citizen scientists to help analyze videos. The results indicated that over 60% of the elephant groups and over 88% of the individual elephants were deterred by the beehive fence. The elephants that came close to the beehive fence showed typical signs of increased alertness and uncertainty and often slowly backed away. The farm owner reported a strong reduction in crop damage after the beehive fence was installed, as well as additional benefits including the supplemental income, pride, and skills development.

A bull in musth checks out the fence. Photo: BTEH.

We further looked into the local communities’ attitudes towards elephants where the majority of households experienced negative encounters with elephants at least once a week including damage to crops and property. Although most farmers had not gained any benefit from living with elephants, two-thirds of the respondents reported being tolerant towards elephants, if only they would stop causing damage. This initial study indicated the need for solutions that combine elephant damage reduction with benefits for local people.

We always emphasize that beehive fencing is not a stand-alone solution. The method requires significant investment and may not work in every human-elephant conflict context. To maximize impact, beehive fences should be combined with other methods such as habitat restoration, providing access to benefits to local communities and growing crops that are unpalatable to elephants. For instance, the farm owner in this study started growing chilli and lemongrass along the beehive fence as an extra barrier, to attract bees, and as a source of income. After positive feedback from farmers, Bring The Elephant Home launched the Tom Yum project: named after the spicy, healthy Thai soup of which the ingredients (chilli, garlic, lemongrass, galangal, kaffir lime, onion, coriander) are not attractive to elephants. Like beehive fences, the Tom Yum project helps to diversify local livelihoods, create employment, and promote human-elephant coexistence.

Tom Yum participants. Photo: BTEH.

Working on these positive projects provided a unique opportunity to learn about the complexity of HEC, fostering connections across the world, thus strengthening awareness and cooperation. It stimulated out of the box thinking, empowered farmers and showed potential ways forward to realize peaceful coexistence.

This study was a collaboration of Bring The Elephant Home Foundation, the Phuluang Wildlife Research Station, Project Dragonfly of Miami University, the Future for Nature Academy, the Elephants and Bees Project of Save the Elephants and global citizen scientists.

Check out the BTEH website for more photos and video of the beehive fence project: https://bring-the-elephant-home.org/project/bee-the-change/

Editor’s Note: One of the important differences between this initiative and others in Asia is the use of non-native European honeybees rather than the native Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The native honey bee is in decline in parts of Asia, and the potential risk of invasion by non-native bees is unknown, requiring further study.

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REFERENCE

van de Water, A., King, L. E., Arkajak, R., Arkajak, J., van Doormaal, N., Ceccarelli, V., … & Matteson, K. (2020). Beehive fences as a sustainable local solution to human‐elephant conflict in Thailand. Conservation Science and Practice2(10), e260. [Full Text]

Can bees help farmers in Sri Lanka deter elephants from their crops? Bee fences in Asia – Part 1.

The tiny bee vs. the world’s largest land mammal…

Guest post by Kylie Butler

Elephants outside Wasgamuwa National Park / Apis cerana bees being transferred into a hive (Photos: Kylie Butler)

Over a decade ago now, Dr. Lucy King developed the beehive fence as an elephant deterrent, capitalising on a then-recent discovery that African elephants avoided African honeybees (Vollrath & Douglas-Hamilton, 2002). The beehive fence is a relatively simple, inexpensive deterrent, aiming to be a tool that communities can use independently following set-up. The basic premise is that a series of beehives surround an area to be protected from elephants, and if elephants attempt to enter, they will disturb the beehives, causing the colonies to swarm (refer to King et al. 2009; 2017 for more details). It should come as no surprise, that the success of multiple beehive fence trials in Africa, led to a curiosity as to whether this technique could also help Asian communities experiencing comparable levels of crop-raiding.

As part of Dr. King’s ‘Elephants and Bees’ project, I had the pleasure and challenge of testing beehive fences, in Dewagiriya Village, Sri Lanka. Dewagiriya is a small paddy-farming community of around 45 permanent households. It is located approximately ten kilometres from Wasgamuwa National Park which is home to more than 400 wild elephants. Elephants frequently venture outside the park, entering nearby villages to forage on crops, vegetables, and fruits. In Dewagiriya village, crop-raiding occurs year-round and community members struggle to protect their livelihoods and homes from nocturnal pachyderm visitors.

(See below to read about the playback experiments performed by Lucy King & the Udawalawe Elephant Research Project, to gauge the response of wild elephants to honeybees.)

Elephant damage to a house.

It is a unique experience turning up to a new community, to introduce the seemingly absurd idea of deterring elephants with bees. My only (very loose) connection to Dewagiriya was that the family of my field assistant’s best friend’s mother lived there. I was aware that as a female research student from middle-class, urban Australia, I was an outsider and a curiosity. I was also conscious that my textbook knowledge of human-elephant conflict in Sri Lanka was nothing compared to the lived experience of the Dewagiriya community, and that I had a lot to learn.

However, people were very welcoming and, feeling generally limited in their capacity to protect their crops from elephants, were keen to give beehive fencing a chance. I stressed that we did not know if the fences would help but expectations were high. Between 2014 and 2017, my small team of local and international field assistants and I worked with the Dewagiriya community and established Sri Lanka’s first beehive fence trial.

The community identified home gardens as particularly vulnerable to elephants, and we chose ten gardens to surround with beehive fences as well as ten ‘control’ gardens which remained unfenced. For three years, we recorded data on all elephant sightings and entries into home gardens, and on bee colonisations and hive health. Together, we built fences, fixed posts, monitored hives, and practised beekeeping. My talented, bi-lingual field assistant Supun translated back and forth as I learned about the challenges and joys of life in Dewagiriya Village, and specifically of co-existing (willingly or not) with elephants.

So, the big question: did beehive fencing effectively deter Asian elephants from crop-raiding (in Dewagiriya Village)?

Spoiler alert: there is no simple response.

The short answer is that the fences demonstrated effectiveness. Significantly less elephant incursions occurred at home gardens surrounded by beehive fences compared to control gardens, and this effect strengthened as hive occupations increased. This result was both exciting and encouraging. However, the question remains: was it enough? 43% of elephant approaches resulted in elephants entering home gardens, usually causing some damage, and creating danger for the family inside.

On reflection, (and in my personal opinion), two key barriers to beehive fence success in Dewagiriya Village stood out: (a) practical challenges of beekeeping; and (b) community motivation, willingness to participate and capacity.


Practical challenges of beekeeping

Prior to beginning our beehive fence trial, beekeeping was not common in Dewagiriya. A few elders harvested wild forest honey, and a couple of people used clay pots to attract wild bees. Overall, beekeeping was a learning curve. Teaching a new skill, at the same time as introducing a new elephant deterrent, in addition to the busy day-to-day lives farming and nights spent awake waiting for elephants, is a big ask.

Natural hive occupations were low, meaning colonies had to be purchased and transported from Kandy and Colombo, adding considerable expense to the fences. Our only option was to use the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, which is less aggressive than African or European honeybees. During the dry season, we had to provide food and water for the bees, and during the rainy season, high winds and storms disturbed the hives. As a result, hive health suffered, and colonies absconded frequently.

Honey production, which was a major incentive for participating families, was minimal. People lost interest in beekeeping or found that the practical challenges of beekeeping with hives suspended from posts, in an environment not particularly amenable to widespread beekeeping, were too great.  

Community motivation, willingness to participate, and capacity

Motivation for using beehive fences fluctuated throughout the trial. Initial excitement wavered when it took time to source colonies or when colonies absconded. When planting or harvesting, people had little time to maintain fences, rendering it a low priority when they were uncertain of fence effectiveness.

Most families felt the beehive fences slowed elephants down. They believed elephants thought the connecting wires were ‘electric’ and paused, giving people time to chase them away using ‘traditional’ techniques such as throwing firecrackers, shouting, and using torch lights. However, they were not able to rely on the beehive fences as the primary line of defence.

The relationship and dynamics between myself and the community was interesting. I often found people told me what they thought I wanted to hear, which was generally that they loved the fences. Yet actions didn’t always reflect this. It was only in my third and fourth years, that some community members felt comfortable to openly discuss challenges or frustrations with their beehive fences. These conversations typically occurred informally, while working on the fences or beekeeping together, or sharing tea or food. During more structured interviews, people reverted back to sharing only positive thoughts. While difficult to analyse in an academic context, the value of knowledge generated through informal conversation cannot be overstated.

Finally, people’s capacity to maintain and continue using their fences once our trial ended was extremely limited. Despite being relatively inexpensive compared to other techniques, no households in the community could afford to replace posts, hive parts, or colonies. After three years, only three participating families were confident in their beekeeping skills. Although we tried to set up local, ongoing support, this unfortunately did not eventuate. When I visited the village early this year (2020), only one beehive fence remained, and community leaders said they had received no assistance since 2018.

Editor’s note: Is that it for the beehive fence approach in Asia? Not quite. Stay tuned next week, for Part 2, a study conducted in Thailand!

RELATED POSTS


REFERENCES

King, LE, Lala, F, Nzumu, H, Mwambingu, E & Douglas-Hamilton, I 2017, ‘Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants’, Conservation Practice and Policy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 743 – 752.

King, LE, Lawrence, A, Douglas-Hamilton, I & Vollrath, F 2009, ‘Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants’, African Journal of Ecology, vol. 47, pp. 131 – 137.

Vollrath, F & Douglas-Hamilton, I 2002, ‘African bees to control African elephants’, Naturwissenschaften, vol. 89, pp. 508 – 511.

When farmers and elephants compete for space

By Lena Coker

These farmers in Sri Lanka are at the interface of forest and agriculture, where most incursions by elephants occur.

In Sherpur, rural Bangladesh, as the human population increases, so does the demand for the land and natural resources that the elephants need to survive. This is a story of human-animal conflict that is repeated around the globe with many species and rural communities as they struggle to find the balance for coexistence. Continue reading

Call Combinations Differ Among Living Elephants

The living elephants – Asian elephant, African forest elephant and African savannah elephant.

Guest post by Michael Pardo

Ask most people what sound an elephant makes and they are likely to think of a trumpet. In reality though, elephants produce an incredible variety of different vocalizations. The most common call is a deep, pulsating rumble, so low-pitched that human observers sometimes feel it more than hear it. Elephants also roar—powerful, bellowing sounds that carry across the landscape. And sometimes, they give combination calls, in which one or two rumbles and roars are stitched together with no pause for breath.

I visited Udawalawe in 2014 to work with the Udawalawe Elephant Research Project, and was especially fascinated by these combination calls. Combining meaningful units into sequences with an additional meaning is a key component of human language, but there are relatively few examples of this phenomenon in other species. Listening to the Udawalawe elephants, I was struck by the fact that they nearly always produced combination calls in the same order: a single roar followed by a single rumble. Why was this? Could it be analogous to grammatical rules in human language? Or could it be as simple as an anatomical constraint that made it difficult for the elephants to produce a rumble before a roar? Continue reading

The Patels Visit Udawalawe

Guest post by Yogi & Nikita Patel

We traveled to Sri Lanka to work with Trunks & Leaves in support of schools surrounding the Udawalawe National Park. We first arrived in Negombo, Sri Lanka where we were met by Deepani, who works with Trunks & Leaves, and her friend Jocelyn. We traveled by car to Udawalawe where we were joined by Sameera, the project coordinator. We visited the first Montessori preschool, operated by Sameera’s sister, Chathurika. She was gracious in showing us the school, which was closed for the holidays. She had been hard at work painting furniture and cleaning the classroom and play area for her 18 students. Her school, which is attached to her home, is surrounded by many fruit trees. Her family members supported her passion for educating children in her town.

Our next stop was school teacher Shiromi’s home. We met with Shiromi who greeted us with her family and offered the most amazing homecooked treats. We chatted about her work in the village and her school, Dimuthu preschool. We met with Shiromi again the following day, where we observed the children in her classroom. The parents were very supportive of Shiromi and came to the school with their children even though they were supposed to be on holiday. We got to sing and dance the “hokey pokey”.

Deepani, Yogi and Sameera with the first cohort of preschool teachers whose schools received support from Trunks & Leaves’ sponsors (photo courtesy of Yogi Patel).

Continue reading

Social Structure in South Indian Elephants

Guest post by Nandini Shetty

A group of elephants visit the grasslands surrounding the Kabini Reservoir in Southern India. Photo: Kabini Elephant Project

India includes some of the largest populations of Asian elephants in the world: an estimated ~26 000 to 28 000 elephants distributed across four regions. Of the four regions, southern India includes the single largest population of Asian elephants in the world (~14 000) and elephants are distributed across the Western and Eastern Ghats.

I studied the ecology and behaviour of Asian elephants as part of an ongoing long-term project on elephants, the Kabini Elephant Project, which was started in March 2009 to study the social life of elephants. Continue reading

Elephant Gardens

Guest post by Jessie Panazzolo

A camera trap photo shows Sumatran elephants trekking through lush regenerating forest.

I had always been told the same thing over and over again from my schooling, the scientific papers I read, and people I met growing up. This was that once primary rainforest was gone and removed from the Earth, it could not grow again. I was told that the forest needed a constant cycling of nutrients to flourish. That without the trees blanketing the ground in leaf litter the soil would be devoid of any nutrients needed to create such rich life again.

I had also been told that important forest dwellers such as the Sumatran Orangutan would only find a home in thick established forests. I had read in many different papers that Sumatran Orangutans, unlike their Bornean cousins, never spent any time walking on the forest floor in fear of the predatory Sumatran Tiger.

Considering all this, you could imagine my surprise and awe when I found myself in the middle of a brand new Sumatran rainforest, barely five years old, seeing orangutans walk the ground in front of my very eyes. It was then that I knew that anything was possible. Continue reading

Facing The Threat Together

By Mickey Pardo, Cornell University & Open University of Sri Lanka

Down the Old Mau Ara Road we drove, my head swiveling left and right as I scanned for elephants on the grassy strips to either side.  Then we rounded a bend, and Lucy slowed to a stop in front of the herd standing thirty meters away.  It was a rather large group:  [472], [873], [075], and [151], along with a number of sub-adults and juveniles.  [151] and a sub-adult female approached slowly to within a few meters of our jeep.

Mickey_elephants1

RAAAAAAAHHHHHHH!  With no warning, they bellowed in our faces in deafening unison! Continue reading

A new arrival

By Michael Pardo, Cornell University

Monday, February 10:

IMG_0141

I gazed out on Uda Walawe National Park for the first time in over a year as our jeep trundled through the entrance gate.  I welcomed the cool morning air that I knew would swiftly turn hot as the sun climbed higher in the sky.  Dark clouds loomed threateningly overhead, but they were all bluff.  Uda Walawe is experiencing something of a drought this year—while we were driving to the park I noticed that the roaring river I remembered from last December had been replaced by a wide strip of boulders and trees.

Drought does have its advantages though.  The ponds and reservoirs in the park had receded, baring flat, open areas that stood out in stark contrast to the dense shrubs and trees blanketing most of the habitat.  I knew that if we were lucky enough to encounter elephants at any of these waterholes, I would have a clear line of sight for behavioral observations. Continue reading

How to study social networks in elephants

Another nice summary of our work by Pleuni Pennings. Don’t forget to join us on December 21st at the Randall Museum if you are in San Francisco!

Being A Better Scientist

Elephants are smart and social, and sometimes they seem very much like humans, for example when they mourn their dead. Long term research by Shermin de Silva and colleagues (BMC Ecology, 2011) showed that their friendships are also very much like ours.

Who is she hanging out with?

Shermin and her colleagues observed 286 female elephants over 20 months in Uda Walawe National Park in Sri Lanka. Every time the field crew saw one of the elephants, they noted who she was with. The data could later be analyzed using tools from network analysis.

How to recognize 286 elephants?

But wait a second, 286 elephants … that’s a lot of elephants to remember. You may wonder how recognizing so many individual elephants is even possible for Shermin and her crew. Well, the answer is twofold. First of all, all elephants have different ears. Second, Shermin and her colleagues…

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